int flock(int fd, int operation);
A single file may not simultaneously have both shared and exclusive locks.
Locks created by flock() are associated with an open file table entry. This means that duplicate file descriptors (created by, for example, fork(2) or dup(2)) refer to the same lock, and this lock may be modified or released using any of these descriptors. Furthermore, the lock is released either by an explicit LOCK_UN operation on any of these duplicate descriptors, or when all such descriptors have been closed.
If a process uses open(2) (or similar) to obtain more than one descriptor for the same file, these descriptors are treated independently by flock(). An attempt to lock the file using one of these file descriptors may be denied by a lock that the calling process has already placed via another descriptor.
A process may only hold one type of lock (shared or exclusive) on a file. Subsequent flock() calls on an already locked file will convert an existing lock to the new lock mode.
Locks created by flock() are preserved across an execve(2).
A shared or exclusive lock can be placed on a file regardless of the mode in which the file was opened.
Since kernel 2.0, flock(2) is implemented as a system call in its own right rather than being emulated in the GNU C library as a call to fcntl(2). This yields true BSD semantics: there is no interaction between the types of lock placed by flock(2) and fcntl(2), and flock(2) does not detect deadlock.
flock(2) places advisory locks only; given suitable permissions on a file, a process is free to ignore the use of flock(2) and perform I/O on the file.
flock(2) and fcntl(2) locks have different semantics with respect to forked processes and dup(2). On systems that implement flock() using fcntl(), the semantics of flock() will be different from those described in this manual page.
Converting a lock (shared to exclusive, or vice versa) is not guaranteed to be atomic: the existing lock is first removed, and then a new lock is established. Between these two steps, a pending lock request by another process may be granted, with the result that the conversion either blocks, or fails if LOCK_NB was specified. (This is the original BSD behaviour, and occurs on many other implementations.)
There are also locks.txt and mandatory.txt in /usr/src/linux/Documentation.