Section: Tk Applications (1)
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wish - Simple windowing shell
wish ?fileName arg arg ...?
- -colormap new
Specifies that the window should have a new private colormap instead of
using the default colormap for the screen.
- -display display
Display (and screen) on which to display window.
- -geometry geometry
Initial geometry to use for window. If this option is specified, its
value is stored in the geometry global variable of the application's
- -name name
Use name as the title to be displayed in the window, and
as the name of the interpreter for send commands.
Execute all X server commands synchronously, so that errors
are reported immediately. This will result in much slower
execution, but it is useful for debugging.
- -use id
Specifies that the main window for the application is to be embedded in
the window whose identifier is id, instead of being created as an
independent toplevel window. Id must be specified in the same
way as the value for the -use option for toplevel widgets (i.e.
it has a form like that returned by the winfo id command).
- -visual visual
Specifies the visual to use for the window.
Visual may have any of the forms supported by the Tk_GetVisual
Pass all remaining arguments through to the script's argv
variable without interpreting them.
This provides a mechanism for passing arguments such as -name
to a script instead of having wish interpret them.
Wish is a simple program consisting of the Tcl command
language, the Tk toolkit, and a main program that reads commands
from standard input or from a file.
It creates a main window and then processes Tcl commands.
If wish is invoked with no arguments, or with a first argument
that starts with ``-'', then it reads Tcl commands interactively from
It will continue processing commands until all windows have been
deleted or until end-of-file is reached on standard input.
If there exists a file .wishrc in the home directory of
the user, wish evaluates the file as a Tcl script
just before reading the first command from standard input.
If wish is invoked with an initial fileName argument, then
fileName is treated as the name of a script file.
Wish will evaluate the script in fileName (which
presumably creates a user interface), then it will respond to events
until all windows have been deleted.
Commands will not be read from standard input.
There is no automatic evaluation of .wishrc when the name
of a script file is presented on the wish command line,
but the script file can always source it if desired.
Wish automatically processes all of the command-line options
described in the OPTIONS summary above.
Any other command-line arguments besides these are passed through
to the application using the argc and argv variables
APPLICATION NAME AND CLASS
The name of the application, which is used for purposes such as
send commands, is taken from the -name option,
if it is specified; otherwise it is taken from fileName,
if it is specified, or from the command name by which
wish was invoked. In the last two cases, if the name contains a ``/''
character, then only the characters after the last slash are used
as the application name.
The class of the application, which is used for purposes such as
specifying options with a RESOURCE_MANAGER property or .Xdefaults
file, is the same as its name except that the first letter is
Wish sets the following Tcl variables:
Contains a count of the number of arg arguments (0 if none),
not including the options described above.
Contains a Tcl list whose elements are the arg arguments
that follow a -- option or don't match any of the
options described in OPTIONS above, in order, or an empty string
if there are no such arguments.
Contains fileName if it was specified.
Otherwise, contains the name by which wish was invoked.
If the -geometry option is specified, wish copies its
value into this variable. If the variable still exists after
fileName has been evaluated, wish uses the value of
the variable in a wm geometry command to set the main
Contains 1 if wish is reading commands interactively (fileName
was not specified and standard input is a terminal-like
device), 0 otherwise.
If you create a Tcl script in a file whose first line is
then you can invoke the script file directly from your shell if
you mark it as executable.
This assumes that wish has been installed in the default
location in /usr/local/bin; if it's installed somewhere else
then you'll have to modify the above line to match.
Many UNIX systems do not allow the #! line to exceed about
30 characters in length, so be sure that the wish executable
can be accessed with a short file name.
An even better approach is to start your script files with the
following three lines:
This approach has three advantages over the approach in the previous
paragraph. First, the location of the wish binary doesn't have
to be hard-wired into the script: it can be anywhere in your shell
search path. Second, it gets around the 30-character file name limit
in the previous approach.
Third, this approach will work even if wish is
itself a shell script (this is done on some systems in order to
handle multiple architectures or operating systems: the wish
script selects one of several binaries to run). The three lines
cause both sh and wish to process the script, but the
exec is only executed by sh.
sh processes the script first; it treats the second
line as a comment and executes the third line.
The exec statement cause the shell to stop processing and
instead to start up wish to reprocess the entire script.
When wish starts up, it treats all three lines as comments,
since the backslash at the end of the second line causes the third
line to be treated as part of the comment on the second line.
# the next line restarts using wish \
exec wish "$0" "$@"
The end of a script file may be marked either by the physical end of
the medium, or by the character, '\032' ('\u001a', control-Z).
If this character is present in the file, the wish application
will read text up to but not including the character. An application
that requires this character in the file may encode it as
``\032'', ``\x1a'', or ``\u001a''; or may generate it by use of commands
such as format or binary.
When wish is invoked interactively it normally prompts for each
command with ``% ''. You can change the prompt by setting the
variables tcl_prompt1 and tcl_prompt2. If variable
tcl_prompt1 exists then it must consist of a Tcl script
to output a prompt; instead of outputting a prompt wish
will evaluate the script in tcl_prompt1.
The variable tcl_prompt2 is used in a similar way when
a newline is typed but the current command isn't yet complete;
if tcl_prompt2 isn't set then no prompt is output for
- APPLICATION NAME AND CLASS
- SCRIPT FILES
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