Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: JAN 2005
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fls - List file and directory names in a forensic image
fls [-adDFlpruvV] [-m
lists the files and directory names in the
and can display file names of recently deleted files for the directory
using the given
If the inode argument is not given, 2 is used.
The arguments are as follows:
Display the "." and ".." directory entries (by default it does not)
Display deleted entries only
Display directory entries only
- -f fstype
The type of File System. Use the -? argument for a list of supported types.
If not given, the default type for the platform is used.
Display file (all non-directory) entries only.
Display file details in long format. The following contents are displayed:
file_type inode file_name mod_time acc_time cre_time size uid gid
- -m mnt
Display files in time machine format. The output can be merged with the body file from grave-robber(1) before mactime(1)
is run. The files will be printed as though the image was mounted at
(for example /usr).
Display the full path for each entry. By default it denotes
the directory depth on recursive runs with a '+' sign.
Recursively display directories. This will not
follow deleted directories, because it can't.
- -s seconds
The time skew of the original system in seconds. For example, if the
original system was 100 seconds slow, this value would be -100. This
is only used if -l or -m are given.
- -i imgtype
Identify the type of image file, such as raw or split. Raw is the default.
- -o imgoffset
The sector offset where the file system starts in the image. Non-512 byte
sectors can be specified using '@' (32@2048).
Display undeleted entries only
Verbose output to stderr.
- -z zone
The ASCII string of the time zone of the original system. For
example, EST or GMT. These strings must be defined by your operating
system and may vary.
- image [images]
One (or more if split) disk or partition images whose format is given with '-i'.
Once the inode has been determined, the file can be recovered using
from The Coroners Toolkit. The amount of information recovered from
deleted file entries varies depending on the system. For example,
on Linux, a recently deleted file can be easily recovered, while in
Solaris not even the inode can be determined. If you just want to
find what file name belongs to an inode, it is easier to use
To get a list of all files and directories in an image use:
# fls -r image 2
# fls -r image
To get the full path of deleted files in a given directory:
# fls -d -p image 29
To get the mactime output do:
# fls -m /usr/local image 2
If you have a disk image and the file system starts in sector 63, use:
# fls -o 63 disk-img.dd
If you have a disk image that is split use:
# fls -i "split" -o 63 disk-1.dd disk-2.dd disk-3.dd
fls first appeared in TCTUTILs v1.0.
Brian Carrier <firstname.lastname@example.org>
- SEE ALSO
linux.jgfs.net manual pages