Appendix K. A Sample .bashrc File

The ~/.bashrc file determines the behavior of interactive shells. A good look at this file can lead to a better understanding of Bash.

Emmanuel Rouat contributed the following very elaborate .bashrc file, written for a Linux system. He welcomes reader feedback on it.

Study the file carefully, and feel free to reuse code snippets and functions from it in your own .bashrc file or even in your scripts.

Example K-1. Sample .bashrc file

#=============================================================== # # PERSONAL $HOME/.bashrc FILE for bash-2.05a (or later) # # Last modified: Tue Apr 15 20:32:34 CEST 2003 # # This file is read (normally) by interactive shells only. # Here is the place to define your aliases, functions and # other interactive features like your prompt. # # This file was designed (originally) for Solaris but based # on Redhat's default .bashrc file # --> Modified for Linux. # The majority of the code you'll find here is based on code found # on Usenet (or internet). # This bashrc file is a bit overcrowded - remember it is just # just an example. Tailor it to your needs # # #=============================================================== # --> Comments added by HOWTO author. # --> And then edited again by ER :-) #----------------------------------- # Source global definitions (if any) #----------------------------------- if [ -f /etc/bashrc ]; then . /etc/bashrc # --> Read /etc/bashrc, if present. fi #------------------------------------------------------------- # Automatic setting of $DISPLAY (if not set already) # This works for linux - your mileage may vary.... # The problem is that different types of terminals give # different answers to 'who am i'...... # I have not found a 'universal' method yet #------------------------------------------------------------- function get_xserver () { case $TERM in xterm ) XSERVER=$(who am i | awk '{print $NF}' | tr -d ')''(' ) # Ane-Pieter Wieringa suggests the following alternative: # I_AM=$(who am i) # SERVER=${I_AM#*(} # SERVER=${SERVER%*)} XSERVER=${XSERVER%%:*} ;; aterm | rxvt) # find some code that works here..... ;; esac } if [ -z ${DISPLAY:=""} ]; then get_xserver if [[ -z ${XSERVER} || ${XSERVER} == $(hostname) || ${XSERVER} == "unix" ]]; then DISPLAY=":0.0" # Display on local host else DISPLAY=${XSERVER}:0.0 # Display on remote host fi fi export DISPLAY #--------------- # Some settings #--------------- ulimit -S -c 0 # Don't want any coredumps set -o notify set -o noclobber set -o ignoreeof set -o nounset #set -o xtrace # Useful for debuging # Enable options: shopt -s cdspell shopt -s cdable_vars shopt -s checkhash shopt -s checkwinsize shopt -s mailwarn shopt -s sourcepath shopt -s no_empty_cmd_completion # bash>=2.04 only shopt -s cmdhist shopt -s histappend histreedit histverify shopt -s extglob # Necessary for programmable completion # Disable options: shopt -u mailwarn unset MAILCHECK # I don't want my shell to warn me of incoming mail export TIMEFORMAT=$'\nreal %3R\tuser %3U\tsys %3S\tpcpu %P\n' export HISTIGNORE="&:bg:fg:ll:h" export HOSTFILE=$HOME/.hosts # Put a list of remote hosts in ~/.hosts #----------------------- # Greeting, motd etc... #----------------------- # Define some colors first: red='\e[0;31m' RED='\e[1;31m' blue='\e[0;34m' BLUE='\e[1;34m' cyan='\e[0;36m' CYAN='\e[1;36m' NC='\e[0m' # No Color # --> Nice. Has the same effect as using "ansi.sys" in DOS. # Looks best on a black background..... echo -e "${CYAN}This is BASH ${RED}${BASH_VERSION%.*}\ ${CYAN} - DISPLAY on ${RED}$DISPLAY${NC}\n" date if [ -x /usr/games/fortune ]; then /usr/games/fortune -s # makes our day a bit more fun.... :-) fi function _exit() # function to run upon exit of shell { echo -e "${RED}Hasta la vista, baby${NC}" } trap _exit EXIT #--------------- # Shell Prompt #--------------- if [[ "${DISPLAY#$HOST}" != ":0.0" && "${DISPLAY}" != ":0" ]]; then HILIT=${red} # remote machine: prompt will be partly red else HILIT=${cyan} # local machine: prompt will be partly cyan fi # --> Replace instances of \W with \w in prompt functions below #+ --> to get display of full path name. function fastprompt() { unset PROMPT_COMMAND case $TERM in *term | rxvt ) PS1="${HILIT}[\h]$NC \W > \[\033]0;\${TERM} [\u@\h] \w\007\]" ;; linux ) PS1="${HILIT}[\h]$NC \W > " ;; *) PS1="[\h] \W > " ;; esac } function powerprompt() { _powerprompt() { LOAD=$(uptime|sed -e "s/.*: \([^,]*\).*/\1/" -e "s/ //g") } PROMPT_COMMAND=_powerprompt case $TERM in *term | rxvt ) PS1="${HILIT}[\A \$LOAD]$NC\n[\h \#] \W > \ \[\033]0;\${TERM} [\u@\h] \w\007\]" ;; linux ) PS1="${HILIT}[\A - \$LOAD]$NC\n[\h \#] \w > " ;; aboutauthor.html aliases.html arithexp.html arrays.html asciitable.html assortedtips.html authorsnote.html awk.html bash2.html bash-options.html bashver2.html bashver3.html basic.html biblio.html colorizing.html command-line-options.html commandsub.html communications.html comparison-ops.html complexfunct.html contributed-scripts.html copyright.html credits.html dblparens.html debugging.html declareref.html devproc.html devref1.html disclaimer.html dosbatch.html endnotes.html escapingsection.html exercises.html exitcodes.html exit-status.html external.html extmisc.html filearchiv.html files.html fto.html functions.html globbingref.html gotchas.html here-docs.html histcommands.html index.html intandnonint.html internal.html internalvariables.html invoking.html io-redirection.html ioredirintro.html ivr.html list-cons.html localization.html localvar.html loopcontrol.html loops1.html loops.html mathc.html mirrorsites.html miscellany.html moreadv.html nestedifthen.html nestedloops.html numerical-constants.html operations.html opprecedence.html ops.html optimizations.html options.html othertypesv.html parameter-substitution.html part1.html part2.html part3.html part4.html part5.html portabilityissues.html prelimexer.html process-sub.html procref1.html quoting.html quotingvar.html randomvar.html recess-time.html recurnolocvar.html recursionsct.html redirapps.html redircb.html refcards.html regexp.html restricted-sh.html revisionhistory.html sample-bashrc.html scriptanalysis.html scrstyle.html securityissues.html sedawk.html sha-bang.html special-chars.html standard-options.html string-manipulation.html subshells.html sysscripts.html systemdirs.html system.html terminalccmds.html testbranch.html testconstructs.html testsandcomparisons.html tests.html testtest.html textproc.html timedate.html todolist.html toolsused.html unofficialst.html untyped.html varassignment.html variables2.html variables.html varsubn.html wherehelp.html why-shell.html winscript.html wrapper.html writingscripts.html x16044.html x16712.html x16834.html x21467.html x8885.html xrefindex.html zeros.html ) PS1="[\A - \$LOAD]\n[\h \#] \w > " ;; esac } powerprompt # This is the default prompt -- might be slow. # If too slow, use fastprompt instead. #=============================================================== # # ALIASES AND FUNCTIONS # # Arguably, some functions defined here are quite big # (ie 'lowercase') but my workstation has 512Meg of RAM, so ... # If you want to make this file smaller, these functions can # be converted into scripts. # # Many functions were taken (almost) straight from the bash-2.04 # examples. # #=============================================================== #------------------- # Personnal Aliases #------------------- alias rm='rm -i' alias cp='cp -i' alias mv='mv -i' # -> Prevents accidentally clobbering files. alias mkdir='mkdir -p' alias h='history' alias j='jobs -l' alias r='rlogin' alias which='type -all' alias ..='cd ..' alias path='echo -e ${PATH//:/\\n}' alias print='/usr/bin/lp -o nobanner -d $LPDEST' # Assumes LPDEST is defined alias pjet='enscript -h -G -fCourier9 -d $LPDEST' # Pretty-print using enscript alias background='xv -root -quit -max -rmode 5' # Put a picture in the background alias du='du -kh' alias df='df -kTh' # The 'ls' family (this assumes you use the GNU ls) alias la='ls -Al' # show hidden files alias ls='ls -hF --color' # add colors for filetype recognition alias lx='ls -lXB' # sort by extension alias lk='ls -lSr' # sort by size alias lc='ls -lcr' # sort by change time alias lu='ls -lur' # sort by access time alias lr='ls -lR' # recursive ls alias lt='ls -ltr' # sort by date alias lm='ls -al |more' # pipe through 'more' alias tree='tree -Csu' # nice alternative to 'ls' # tailoring 'less' alias more='less' export PAGER=less export LESSCHARSET='latin1' export LESSOPEN='|/usr/bin/lesspipe.sh %s 2>&-' # Use this if lesspipe.sh exists. export LESS='-i -N -w -z-4 -g -e -M -X -F -R -P%t?f%f \ :stdin .?pb%pb\%:?lbLine %lb:?bbByte %bb:-...' # spelling typos - highly personnal :-) alias xs='cd' alias vf='cd' alias moer='more' alias moew='more' alias kk='ll' #---------------- # a few fun ones #---------------- function xtitle () { case "$TERM" in *term | rxvt) echo -n -e "\033]0;$*\007" ;; *) ;; esac } # aliases... alias top='xtitle Processes on $HOST && top' alias make='xtitle Making $(basename $PWD) ; make' alias ncftp="xtitle ncFTP ; ncftp" # .. and functions function man () { for i ; do xtitle The $(basename $1|tr -d .[:digit:]) manual command man -F -a "$i" done } function ll() { ls -l "$@"| egrep "^d" ; ls -lXB "$@" 2>&-| egrep -v "^d|total "; } function te() # wrapper around xemacs/gnuserv { if [ "$(gnuclient -batch -eval t 2>&-)" == "t" ]; then gnuclient -q "$@"; else ( xemacs "$@" &); fi } #----------------------------------- # File & strings related functions: #----------------------------------- # Find a file with a pattern in name: function ff() { find . -type f -iname '*'$*'*' -ls ; } # Find a file with pattern $1 in name and Execute $2 on it: function fe() { find . -type f -iname '*'$1'*' -exec "${2:-file}" {} \; ; } # find pattern in a set of filesand highlight them: function fstr() { OPTIND=1 local case="" local usage="fstr: find string in files. Usage: fstr [-i] \"pattern\" [\"filename pattern\"] " while getopts :it opt do case "$opt" in i) case="-i " ;; *) echo "$usage"; return;; esac done shift $(( $OPTIND - 1 )) if [ "$#" -lt 1 ]; then echo "$usage" return; fi local SMSO=$(tput smso) local RMSO=$(tput rmso) find . -type f -name "${2:-*}" -print0 | xargs -0 grep -sn ${case} "$1" 2>&- | \ sed "s/$1/${SMSO}\0${RMSO}/gI" | more } function cuttail() # Cut last n lines in file, 10 by default. { nlines=${2:-10} sed -n -e :a -e "1,${nlines}!{P;N;D;};N;ba" $1 } function lowercase() # move filenames to lowercase { for file ; do filename=${file##*/} case "$filename" in */*) dirname==${file%/*} ;; *) dirname=.;; esac nf=$(echo $filename | tr A-Z a-z) newname="${dirname}/${nf}" if [ "$nf" != "$filename" ]; then mv "$file" "$newname" echo "lowercase: $file --> $newname" else echo "lowercase: $file not changed." fi done } function swap() # swap 2 filenames around { local TMPFILE=tmp.$$ mv "$1" $TMPFILE mv "$2" "$1" mv $TMPFILE "$2" } #----------------------------------- # Process/system related functions: #----------------------------------- function my_ps() { ps $@ -u $USER -o pid,%cpu,%mem,bsdtime,command ; } function pp() { my_ps f | awk '!/awk/ && $0~var' var=${1:-".*"} ; } # This function is roughly the same as 'killall' on linux # but has no equivalent (that I know of) on Solaris function killps() # kill by process name { local pid pname sig="-TERM" # default signal if [ "$#" -lt 1 ] || [ "$#" -gt 2 ]; then echo "Usage: killps [-SIGNAL] pattern" return; fi if [ $# = 2 ]; then sig=$1 ; fi for pid in $(my_ps| awk '!/awk/ && $0~pat { print $1 }' pat=${!#} ) ; do pname=$(my_ps | awk '$1~var { print $5 }' var=$pid ) if ask "Kill process $pid <$pname> with signal $sig?" then kill $sig $pid fi done } function my_ip() # get IP adresses { MY_IP=$(/sbin/ifconfig ppp0 | awk '/inet/ { print $2 } ' | \ sed -e s/addr://) MY_ISP=$(/sbin/ifconfig ppp0 | awk '/P-t-P/ { print $3 } ' | \ sed -e s/P-t-P://) } function ii() # get current host related info { echo -e "\nYou are logged on ${RED}$HOST" echo -e "\nAdditionnal information:$NC " ; uname -a echo -e "\n${RED}Users logged on:$NC " ; w -h echo -e "\n${RED}Current date :$NC " ; date echo -e "\n${RED}Machine stats :$NC " ; uptime echo -e "\n${RED}Memory stats :$NC " ; free my_ip 2>&- ; echo -e "\n${RED}Local IP Address :$NC" ; echo ${MY_IP:-"Not connected"} echo -e "\n${RED}ISP Address :$NC" ; echo ${MY_ISP:-"Not connected"} echo } # Misc utilities: function repeat() # repeat n times command { local i max max=$1; shift; for ((i=1; i <= max ; i++)); do # --> C-like syntax eval "$@"; done } function ask() { echo -n "$@" '[y/n] ' ; read ans case "$ans" in y*|Y*) return 0 ;; *) return 1 ;; esac } #======================================================================= # # PROGRAMMABLE COMPLETION - ONLY SINCE BASH-2.04 # Most are taken from the bash 2.05 documentation and from Ian McDonalds # 'Bash completion' package # (http://www.caliban.org/bash/index.shtml#completion) # You will in fact need bash-2.05a for some features # #======================================================================= if [ "${BASH_VERSION%.*}" \< "2.05" ]; then echo "You will need to upgrade to version 2.05 \ for programmable completion" return fi shopt -s extglob # necessary set +o nounset # otherwise some completions will fail complete -A hostname rsh rcp telnet rlogin r ftp ping disk complete -A export printenv complete -A variable export local readonly unset complete -A enabled builtin complete -A alias alias unalias complete -A function function complete -A user su mail finger complete -A helptopic help # currently same as builtins complete -A shopt shopt complete -A stopped -P '%' bg complete -A job -P '%' fg jobs disown complete -A directory mkdir rmdir complete -A directory -o default cd # Compression complete -f -o default -X '*.+(zip|ZIP)' zip complete -f -o default -X '!*.+(zip|ZIP)' unzip complete -f -o default -X '*.+(z|Z)' compress complete -f -o default -X '!*.+(z|Z)' uncompress complete -f -o default -X '*.+(gz|GZ)' gzip complete -f -o default -X '!*.+(gz|GZ)' gunzip complete -f -o default -X '*.+(bz2|BZ2)' bzip2 complete -f -o default -X '!*.+(bz2|BZ2)' bunzip2 # Postscript,pdf,dvi..... complete -f -o default -X '!*.ps' gs ghostview ps2pdf ps2ascii complete -f -o default -X '!*.dvi' dvips dvipdf xdvi dviselect dvitype complete -f -o default -X '!*.pdf' acroread pdf2ps complete -f -o default -X '!*.+(pdf|ps)' gv complete -f -o default -X '!*.texi*' makeinfo texi2dvi texi2html texi2pdf complete -f -o default -X '!*.tex' tex latex slitex complete -f -o default -X '!*.lyx' lyx complete -f -o default -X '!*.+(htm*|HTM*)' lynx html2ps # Multimedia complete -f -o default -X '!*.+(jp*g|gif|xpm|png|bmp)' xv gimp complete -f -o default -X '!*.+(mp3|MP3)' mpg123 mpg321 complete -f -o default -X '!*.+(ogg|OGG)' ogg123 complete -f -o default -X '!*.pl' perl perl5 # This is a 'universal' completion function - it works when commands have # a so-called 'long options' mode , ie: 'ls --all' instead of 'ls -a' _get_longopts () { $1 --help | sed -e '/--/!d' -e 's/.*--\([^[:space:].,]*\).*/--\1/'| \ grep ^"$2" |sort -u ; } _longopts_func () { case "${2:-*}" in -*) ;; *) return ;; esac case "$1" in \~*) eval cmd="$1" ;; *) cmd="$1" ;; esac COMPREPLY=( $(_get_longopts ${1} ${2} ) ) } complete -o default -F _longopts_func configure bash complete -o default -F _longopts_func wget id info a2ps ls recode _make_targets () { local mdef makef gcmd cur prev i COMPREPLY=() cur=${COMP_WORDS[COMP_CWORD]} prev=${COMP_WORDS[COMP_CWORD-1]} # if prev argument is -f, return possible filename completions. # we could be a little smarter here and return matches against # `makefile Makefile *.mk', whatever exists case "$prev" in -*f) COMPREPLY=( $(compgen -f $cur ) ); return 0;; esac # if we want an option, return the possible posix options case "$cur" in -) COMPREPLY=(-e -f -i -k -n -p -q -r -S -s -t); return 0;; esac # make reads `makefile' before `Makefile' if [ -f makefile ]; then mdef=makefile elif [ -f Makefile ]; then mdef=Makefile else mdef=*.mk # local convention fi # before we scan for targets, see if a makefile name was specified # with -f for (( i=0; i < ${#COMP_WORDS[@]}; i++ )); do if [[ ${COMP_WORDS[i]} == -*f ]]; then eval makef=${COMP_WORDS[i+1]} # eval for tilde expansion break fi done [ -z "$makef" ] && makef=$mdef # if we have a partial word to complete, restrict completions to # matches of that word if [ -n "$2" ]; then gcmd='grep "^$2"' ; else gcmd=cat ; fi # if we don't want to use *.mk, we can take out the cat and use # test -f $makef and input redirection COMPREPLY=( $(cat $makef 2>/dev/null | \ awk 'BEGIN {FS=":"} /^[^.# ][^=]*:/ {print $1}' \ | tr -s ' ' '\012' | sort -u | eval $gcmd ) ) } complete -F _make_targets -X '+($*|*.[cho])' make gmake pmake # cvs(1) completion _cvs () { local cur prev COMPREPLY=() cur=${COMP_WORDS[COMP_CWORD]} prev=${COMP_WORDS[COMP_CWORD-1]} if [ $COMP_CWORD -eq 1 ] || [ "${prev:0:1}" = "-" ]; then COMPREPLY=( $( compgen -W 'add admin checkout commit diff \ export history import log rdiff release remove rtag status \ tag update' $cur )) else COMPREPLY=( $( compgen -f $cur )) fi return 0 } complete -F _cvs cvs _killall () { local cur prev COMPREPLY=() cur=${COMP_WORDS[COMP_CWORD]} # get a list of processes (the first sed evaluation # takes care of swapped out processes, the second # takes care of getting the basename of the process) COMPREPLY=( $( /usr/bin/ps -u $USER -o comm | \ sed -e '1,1d' -e 's#[]\[]##g' -e 's#^.*/##'| \ awk '{if ($0 ~ /^'$cur'/) print $0}' )) return 0 } complete -F _killall killall killps # A meta-command completion function for commands like sudo(8), which # need to first complete on a command, # then complete according to that command's own # completion definition - currently not quite foolproof # (e.g. mount and umount don't work properly), # but still quite useful -- # By Ian McDonald, modified by me. _my_command() { local cur func cline cspec COMPREPLY=() cur=${COMP_WORDS[COMP_CWORD]} if [ $COMP_CWORD = 1 ]; then COMPREPLY=( $( compgen -c $cur ) ) elif complete -p ${COMP_WORDS[1]} &>/dev/null; then cspec=$( complete -p ${COMP_WORDS[1]} ) if [ "${cspec%%-F *}" != "${cspec}" ]; then # complete -F <function> # # COMP_CWORD and COMP_WORDS() are not read-only, # so we can set them before handing off to regular # completion routine # set current token number to 1 less than now COMP_CWORD=$(( $COMP_CWORD - 1 )) # get function name func=${cspec#*-F } func=${func%% *} # get current command line minus initial command cline="${COMP_LINE#$1 }" # split current command line tokens into array COMP_WORDS=( $cline ) $func $cline elif [ "${cspec#*-[abcdefgjkvu]}" != "" ]; then # complete -[abcdefgjkvu] #func=$( echo $cspec | sed -e 's/^.*\(-[abcdefgjkvu]\).*$/\1/' ) func=$( echo $cspec | sed -e 's/^complete//' -e 's/[^ ]*$//' ) COMPREPLY=( $( eval compgen $func $cur ) ) elif [ "${cspec#*-A}" != "$cspec" ]; then # complete -A <type> func=${cspec#*-A } func=${func%% *} COMPREPLY=( $( compgen -A $func $cur ) ) fi else COMPREPLY=( $( compgen -f $cur ) ) fi } complete -o default -F _my_command nohup exec eval \ trace truss strace sotruss gdb complete -o default -F _my_command command type which man nice # Local Variables: # mode:shell-script # sh-shell:bash # End: